« aposcripta-1 »


Général

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    Boniface VIII (1294-1303)

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    Pour mémoire future de la chose

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    XIV kalendas decembris, anno octavo

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    1302/11/18

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    Latran

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    Boniface [VIII] rappelle la nécessaire unité de l'Eglise sous l'autorité du vicaire du Christ et déclare que toute créature humaine doit être soumise au pontife romain par nécessité de salut.

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    [Registre de la chancellerie apostolique] R. Reg. Vat. 50, ep. 52, fol. 387v. Rubrique : Declaratio quod subesse Romano Pontifici est omni humane creature de necessitate salutis. Fac similé : Henri Denifle, Specimina palaeographica regestorum Romanorum pontificum ab Innocentio III ad Urbanum V, (1198-1576), Rome : ex Archivio Vaticano, 1888, pl. 46.

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    Ici reprise de Wilhelm Römer, Die Bulle Unam sanctam, Schaffhausen : Joh. Bachmann, 1889.

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    Pierre Dupuy, Histoire du différend d’entre le pape Boniface VIII et Philippes le Bel roy de France, Paris, Sébastien et Gabriel Cramoisy, 1655, preuves, p. 54-56.
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    Carl Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums und des römischen Katholizismus, Tübingen : J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1911, p. 162-163.
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    Digard, n. 5382.
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    Raynaldi, Cologne, 1692, ad. a. 1302, § 13, p. 564.
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    Bulaeus, Hist. univ. Paris., IV, 36.
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    Olenschlager, Staatsgechichte, I.
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    Luigi Tosti, Storia di Bonifazio VIII e de' suoi tempi, Tipi di Monte Cassino, 1846, II, p. 304 [en ligne].
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    Extr. comm. 1. 8. 1 : Emil Friedberg, Corpus Juris Canonici, II, Leipzig, 1879, c. 1245-1246.

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    Potthast, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum, n. 25189 [en ligne].

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    Luigi Tosti, Storia di Bonifazio VIII e de' suoi tempi, Tipi di Monte Cassino, 1846, II, 304.
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    P. Mury, « La bulle Unam Sanctam », Revue des questions historiques, 26, 1879, p. 91-130, et 46, 1887, p. 253-257.
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    G. Desjardins, « La bulle Unam Sanctam », dans Etudes, 36, 6e série, 5, 1880, p. 161 et suiv.
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    Joseph Berchtold, Die Bulle Unam Sanctam, ihre wahre Bedeutung und Tragweite Staat und Kirche, Munich, 1887.
    F. J. Moulard, L'Eglise et l'Etat ou les deux puissances, Louvain, Louvain, 3e éd. 1887, p. 231-239.
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    J. Scheeben, « Die Bulle Unam Sanctam und ihr neuester Gegner », Der Katholik, 68/2, 1888, p. 449-483, 561-602.
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    Franz Ehrmann, Die Bulle Unam sanctam nach ihrem authentischen Wortlaut erklärt, 1896.
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    Wilhelm Joos, Die Bulle Unam sanctam und das vatikanischen Autoritätsprinzip, 2e éd. Schaffhausen, 1897 [en ligne].
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    Jean Rivière, « Gilles de Rome est-il l'auteur de la bulle Unam sanctam ? », Revue des sciences religieuses, 3, 1923, p. 199-210.
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    Jean Rivière, Le problème de l'Église et de l'État au temps de Philippe le Bel : étude de théologie positive, Louvain, Paris, 1926, p. 79-95.
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    Georges Digard, 1936.
    Francisco Segarra, La bula de Bonifacio VIII Unam sanctam : discurso leído en la solemne inauguración del curso académico 1943-1944, en el Seminario Conciliar Central de Valencia, Valence : Imp. Montepío del Clero Valentino, 1943.
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    Marie-Dominique Chenu, « Dogme et théologie dans la bulle Unam Sanctam », Recherches de sciences religieuses, 40, 1952, p. 307-316.
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    Walter Ullmann, « Die Bulle Unam Sanctam. Rückblick und AusblickRömische historische Mitteilungen, 16, 1974, p. 45-77, repris dans Idem, Scholarship and Politics in the Middle Ages, 1978, VI.
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    Jackie Lusse, « The lex divinitas in the bull Unam Sanctam of Pope Boniface VIII, dans Essays C. R. Cheney, p. 205-221.
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    Nicolas Boer, « A bula Unam sanctam de Bonifácio VIII sobre as relaçãos entre a Igreja e o Estado, dans Pensamento Medieval. X Semana de Filosofia da Universidade de Brasília, 1983, p. 125-143.
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    Cardinal Jean Lemoine and the authorship of the glosses to Unam sanctam
    Johannessen, Randy M.. (1988) - In: Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law Ser. NS, vol. 18 (1988) p. 33-42
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    Boniface VIII as defender of royal power. Unam sanctam as a basis for the Spanish conquest of the Americas
    Muldoon, James. (1989) - In: Popes, teachers, and canon law in the Middle Ages p. 62-73
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    Peter D. Clarke, « The Fragment of a Collection of Boniface VIII's extravagentes end a Gloss to Unam sanctam from Carlisle, Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law, 24, 2000-2001, p. 130-133.
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    Agostino Paravicini Bagliani, « Bonifacio VIII, l'affresco di Giotto e i processi contro i nemici della Chiesa. Postilla al giubileo del 1300, Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome, Moyen Âge, 112/1, 2000, p. 459-483.
    La bolla Unam Sanctam e i fondamenti del potere papale fra diritto e teologia
    Conte, Emanuele. (2004) - In: Bonifacio VIII, i Caetani e la storia del Lazio p. 43-64 et - In: Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Moyen Âge vol. 113 (2001) p. 663-684
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    Ludwig Hödl, « Die beiden Kommentare des Johannes Monachus zur Bulle Unam sanctam Papst Bonifaz' VIII (vom 18. Nov. 1302), Recherches de théologie et philosophie médiévales, 71, 2004, p. 172-200.
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    Karl Ubl, Die Genese der Bulle Unam Sanctam : Anslass, Vorlagen, Intention, dans Political Thought in the Age of Scholasticism, éd. Jürgen Miethke, Martin Kaufhold, 2004, p. 130-149.
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    Agostino Paravicini Bagliani, Bonifacio VIII, la loggia di giustizia al Laterano e i processi generali di scomunica, Rivista di storia della Chiesa in Italia, 59/2, 2005, p. 377-428.
    Silvia Di Paolo, Le Extravagantes Communes nell'eta dell'incunabolo : La bolla Unam sanctam da Francesco Pavini a Jean Chappuis, Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte. Kanonistische Abteilung, 91, 2005, p. 355-407, et dans Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law, 2008, p. 311-376.
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    Herde, P. (2006). Bonifacio VIII canonista e teologo ? Dal Consilium (ca. 1277-1280) alla bolla Unam sanctam (1302). Bonifacio VIII : ideologia e azione politica. Atti del Convegno organizzato nell'ambito delle Celebrazioni per il VII Centenario della morte (Città del Vaticano- Roma, 26-28 aprile 2004). Rome, ISIME: 17-41.
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    De Matteis, M. C. (2006). Potestas e iurisdictio nel Registro di Bonifacio VIII. Bonifacio VIII : ideologia e azione politica. Atti del Convegno organizzato nell'ambito delle Celebrazioni per il VII Centenario della morte (Città del Vaticano- Roma, 26-28 aprile 2004). Rome, ISIME: 433-446.
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    Wilfried Hartmann, « Unam sanctam : Höhepunkt und Fall der päpstlichen Macht, dans Welt- und Kulturgeschichte, Pt. 7, 2006, p. 167-177.
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    Giuseppe Dalla Torre, Dalla Unam sanctam alla Gaudium et Spes. Considerazioni sulla potestà pontifìcia, dans I poteri universali e la fondazione dello Studium urbis. Il pontefice Bonifacio VIII dalla Unam sanctam allo schiaffo di Anagni, éd. Giovanni Minnucci, Rome : Monduzzi (Archivio per la storia del diritto medioevale e moderno, 1), 2008, p. 133 et suiv.
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    Giovanni Minnucci, dans I poteri universali e la fondazione dello Studium urbis. Il pontefice Bonifacio VIII dalla Unam sanctam allo schiaffo di Anagni, éd. Giovanni Minnucci, Rome : Monduzzi (Archivio per la storia del diritto medioevale e moderno, 1), 2008, p. 89-106.
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    Primato petrino e indipendenza del potere politico: Dictatus papae, Unam sanctam, Syllabus errorum.
    Lo Iacono, Pietro. - Roma (2009)
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    Andrea Padovani, « La glossa alla bolla Unam Sanctam di Bonifacio VIII. Vecchie e nuove questioni, Divus Thomas. Commentarium de philosophia et theologia, 115/2, 2012, p. 259-287.
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    Chr. Jones, John of Paris, Beyond Royal and Papal Power, Turnhout : Brepols, 2015.

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    Bonifacius episcopus, servus servorum Dei, ad futuram rei memoriam.
    Unam, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam et ipsam apostolicam urgente fide credere cogimur et tenere nosque hanc firmiter credimus et simpliciter confitemur, extra quam nec salus est, nec remissio peccatorum, sponso in Canticis proclamante : Una est columba mea, perfecta mea. Una est matris sue electa genetrici sue1. Que unum corpus mysticum representat, cujus caput Christus, Christi vero Deus. In qua unus Dominus, una fides, unum baptisma. Una nempe fuit diluvii tempore arca Noe, unam ecclesiam prefigurans, que in uno cubito consummata unum, Noe videlicet, gubernatorem habuit et rectorem, extra quam omnia subsistentia super terram legimus fuisse deleta.
    Hanc autem veneramur et unicam, dicente Domino in Propheta : Erue a framea, Deus, animam meam et de manu canis unicam meam2. Pro anima enim, id est, pro seipso, capite simul oravit et corpore. Quod corpus unicam scilicet ecclesiam nominavit, propter sponsi, fidei, sacramentorum et caritatis ecclesie unitatem. Hec est tunica illa Domini inconsutilis, que scissa non fuit, sed sorte provenit3.
    Igitur ecclesie unius et unice unum corpus, unum caput, non duo capita, quasi monstrum, Christus videlicet et Christi vicarius Petrus Petrique successor, dicente Domino ipsi Petro : Pasce oves meas4. Meas, inquit, generaliter, non singulariter has vel illas, per quod commisisse sibi intelligitur universas. Sive ergo Greci sive alii se dicant Petro ejusque successoribus non esse commissos fateantur necesse est se de ovibus Christi non esse, dicente Domino in Joanne unum ovile et unicum esse pastorem5.
    In hac ejusque potestate duos esse gladios, spiritualem videlicet et temporalem, evangelicis dictis instruimur. Nam dicentibus Apostolis : Ecce gladii duo hic6, in ecclesia scilicet, cum apostoli loquerentur, non respondit Dominus, nimis esse, sed satis. Certe qui in potestate Petri temporalem gladium esse negat male verbum attendit Domini proferentis : Converte gladium tuum in vaginam7. Uterque ergo est in potestate Ecclesie, spiritualis scilicet gladius et materialis. Sed is quidem pro Ecclesia, ille vero ab Ecclesia exercendus, ille sacerdotis, is manu regum et militum, sed ad nutum et patientiam sacerdotis.
    Oportet autem gladium esse sub gladio et temporalem auctoritatem spirituali subjici potestati. Nam cum dicat Apostolus : Non est potestas nisi a Deo ; que autem sunt, a Deo ordinata sunt8, non autem ordinata essent nisi gladius esset sub gladio et tanquam inferior reduceretur per alium in suprema. Nam secundum beatum Dionysium lex divinitatis est, infima per media in suprema reduci. Non ergo, secundum ordinem, universi omnia eque ac immediate, sed infima per media, inferiora per superiora ad ordinem reducuntur. Spiritualem autem et dignitate et nobilitate terrenam quamlibet precellere potestatem,oportet tanto clarius nos fateri, quanto spiritualia temporalia antecellunt. Quod etiam ex decimarum datione et benedictione et sanctificatione, ex ipsius potestatis acceptione, ex ipsarum rerum gubernatione claris oculis intuemur. Nam veritate testante spiritualis potestas terrenam potestatem instituere habet et iudicare, si bona non fuerit. Sic de ecclesia et ecclesiastica potestate verificatur vaticinium Jeremiae : Ecce constitui te hodie super gentes et regna et cetera que sequuntur9.
    Ergo, si deviat terrena potestas, judicabitur a potestate spirituali ; sed si deviat spiritualis minor, a suo superiori ; si vero suprema, a solo Deo, non ab homine poterit judicari, testante Apostolo : Spiritualis homo judicat omnia, ipse autem a nemine judicatur10. Est autem hec auctoritas, etsi data sit homini, et exerceatur per hominem, non humana, sed potius divina potestas, ore divino Petro data sibique suisque successoribus in ipso Christo, quem confessus fuit, petra firmata, dicente Domino ipsi Petro : Quodcunque ligaveris, etc11. Quicunque igitur huic potestati a Deo sic ordinatae resistit Dei ordinationi resistit, nisi duo, sicut Manicheus, fingat esse principia, quod falsum et hereticum judicamus, quia, testante Moyse, non in principiis sed in principio celum Deus creavit et terram12.
    Porro subesse Romano Pontifici omni humane creature declaramus, dicimus, definimus et pronunciamus omnino esse de necessitate salutis.
    Datum Laterani, XIV kalendas decembris, anno octavo.

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    Anglaise : Philip Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical notes, II, 1877, p. 605.
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    Boniface, Bishop, Servant of the servants of God, for perpetual remembrance.
    Urged on by our faith, we are compelled to believe and hold that there is One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church and we firmly believe and clearly profess that outside of her there is neither salvation nor remission of sins as the bridegroom declares in the Canticles, my dove, my undefiled is one; she is the only one of her mother, the chosen one of her that bare her. And she represents the mystical body of Christ whose head is Christ and God the head of Christ. In her there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism. For, in the time of the flood there was the single ark of Noah which prefigures the one Church, and was finished according to the measurement of one cubit and had one Noah for pilot and captain, and outside of it every living creature on the earth, as we read, was destroyed. And this Church we revere as the only one even as the Lord said to the prophet, Deliver my soul from the sword, my darling from the power of the dog. Ps. xxii, 20. He prayed for his life that is for himself, head and body. And this body, that is the Church, he called one— unicam —on account of the one bridegroom; and the oneness of the faith, the sacraments and the love in the Church. She is that seamless shirt of the Lord which was not rent but was allotted by the casting of lots. Therefore, this one and only Church has one head and not two heads,—for had she two heads, she would be a monster—that is, Christ and Christ's vicar, Peter and Peter's successor. For the Lord said to Peter himself, Feed my sheep. 'My,' he said (using the plural) that is all, not individuals, these and those; and by this he is understood to have committed to him all the sheep—oves universas. When, therefore, either the Greeks or others say that they were not committed to the care of Peter and his successors, they must confess that they are not of Christ's sheep, even as the Lord says in John, There is one fold and one shepherd. That in this Church and within her power are the two swords, we are taught in the Gospels, namely, the spiritual sword and the temporal sword. For when the Apostle said, Lo here—that is in the Church— are two swords the Lord did not reply to the Apostles, It is too much, but It is enough. For, certainly, he who denies that the temporal sword is in Peter's power, listens badly to the Lord's words Put up thy sword into its sheath. Therefore, both are in the power of the Church, namely, the spiritual sword and the temporal sword,—the latter to be used for the Church, the former by the Church; the former by the hand of the priest, the latter by the hand of princes and kings, but at the nod and instance of the priest. The one sword must of necessity be subject to the other, and the temporal power to the spiritual power. For the Apostle said, There is no power but of God and the powers that be are ordained of God, but not ordained except as sword is subjected to sword and so the inferior is brought by the other to the highest end. For, according to St. Dionysius, it is a divine law that the lowest things are made by mediocre things to attain to the highest. Therefore, it is not according to the order of the universe that all things in an equal way and directly should reach their end, but the lowest through the mediocre and the lower through the higher; and, that the spiritual power excels the earthly power in dignity and worth, we will the more clearly acknowledge in the proportion that the spiritual is higher than the temporal. This we perceive quite distinctly from the donation of the tithe and the functions of benediction and sanctification, from the mode in which power itself is received and the government of things themselves. Truth being the witness, the spiritual power has the function of establishing the temporal power and sitting in judgment on it if it should prove not to be good. And to the Church, and the Church's power, Jeremiah's prophecy, applies: See I have set thee this day over the nations and the kingdoms to pluck up and to break down, to destroy and to overthrow, to build and to plant. And, if the earthly power deviates from the right path, it is judged by the spiritual power, but if a minor spiritual power deviate from the right path, the minor is judged by the superior power, but if the supreme power [the papacy or the Church] deviate, it can be judged not by man but by God only. And so the Apostle testifies, He which is spiritual judges all things but he himself is judged of no man, I Cor., ii, 15. But this authority, although it is given to a man and exercised by a man, is not a human power, nay, much rather a divine power given by the divine lips to Peter, to Peter himself and to his successors in Christ, whom Peter confessed when the Rock was established— petra firmata — when the Lord said unto him, Whatsoever thou shalt bind, etc. Whoever, therefore, resists this power ordained by God, resists God's ordinance, unless perchance he imagines two principles to exist, as did Manichæus, a thing which we pronounce false and heretical because, as Moses testified, 'God created the heaven and the earth not in the beginnings, but "in the beginning".' Further, we declare, say, define and pronounce it to be altogether necessary for salvation for every human creature that he be subject to the Roman pontiff.
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    Allemande : Wilhelm Joos, Die Bulle "Unam sanctam" und das vatikanischen Autoritätsprinzip, 2e éd. Schaffhausen, 1897 [en ligne], p. I-II.

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    1. Cant. 6, 9.
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    2. Ps. 22, 20
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    3. Jn. 19.
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    4. Jn. 21, 17.
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    5. Jn. 10, 16.
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    6. Luc 22, 38.
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    7. Matth. 26, 52.
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    8. Rom. 13, 1.
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    9. Jer. 1, 10.
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    10. 1 Cor. 2,16.
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    11. Matth. 16, 19.
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    12. Gen. 1, 1.

Informations

Acte

Julien Théry (CIHAM (UMR 5648)), dans  APOSCRIPTA – Lettres des papes

APOSCRIPTA database – Lettres des papes, dir. J. Théry, CIHAM/UMR 5648, éd. électronique TELMA (IRHT), Orléans, 2017 [en ligne], acte n. 148678 (aposcripta-1), http://telma-chartes.irht.cnrs.fr/aposcripta/notice/148678 (mise à jour : 17/10/2020).